With this polypotentiostat one electrochemical cell can be equipped with 1, 2, 3 or 4 working electrodes and all of the WE’s will be measured in parallel. The EmStat3 4WE consists of a standard EmStat3 potentiostat and additionally three bipotentiostat modules, thus all techniques an EmStat3 is capable of are available for the EmStat3 4WE.
Each potentiostat has eight current ranges: 1nA to 10mA with a resolution of 1pA at the lowest current range and the device can automatically select the optimal current range.
A cell can be set up with one reference and one counter electrode or one combined reference and counter electrode.
The current is measured using a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA).
If you want more information about the difference between a multiplexer, a multichannel device and a polypotentiostat, download the PalmSens guide on this subject in the documents section.
- Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV)
- Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)
- Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV)
- Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV)
- Cyclic voltammetry (CV)
These methods can all be used in their stripping modes which are applied for (ultra-) trace analysis.
Technique as a function of time:
- Amperometric Detection (AD) (Chronoamperometry)
- Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD)
- Multiple Pulse Amperometry (MPAD)
- Open Circuit Potentiometry (OCP)
- Multistep Amperometry (MA)
The additional WE’s can each individually be used in two different modes:
1. The potential of the additional WE has a constant DC-potential offset with respect to WE1
2. The potential of the additional WE has an independent fixed DC-potential
|EmStat3 4WE||Main potentiostat||Polypotentiostats|
|DC potential range||±3V||±3V|
|DC potential resolution||0.1mV||0.1mV|
|DC potential accuracy||0.2||0.2|
|Current ranges (no. of ranges)||1nA to 10mA (8)||1nA to 10mA (8)|
|Maximum current||±20mA typical & ±15mA minimum||±20mA typical & ±15mA minimum|
|Current resolution||0.1 of current range, 1pA at lowest current range||0.1 of current range, 1pA at lowest current range|
|Electrometer amplifier input||>100GOhm // 4pF||>100GOhm // 4pF|
|Rise time||approx. 100µS||approx. 100µS|