Palmsens4

Description:

The PalmSens4 is a USB and battery powered Potentiostat, Galvanostat, and optional Frequency Response Analyser (FRA) for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The PalmSens4 has a large potential range (-5V to 5V or -10V to 10V) and current range (100 pA to 10 mA) with a high resolution and low noise. The PalmSens4 is equipped with an internal storage of 4 GB, meaning your measurements are automatically saved on-board as a backup. This instrument is a complete laboratory instrument but its compact and rugged design makes it also ideal for field work.

Available Configurations:

DC-Potential Range of +/-5V [05] DC-Potential Range of +/-10V [10]
NO EIS [F0] PS4.F0.05 PS4.F0.10
EIS up to 100 kHz [F1] PS4.F1.05 PS4.F1.10
EIS up to 1 MHz [F2] PS4.F2.05 PS4.F2.10
PalmSens4 standard configuration in case with accessories

Included as standard with all PalmSens4:

  • high quality, double shielded cell cable
  • 2 mm banana connectors for working, counter, reference electrode and ground
  • mini-crocodile clips
  • USB cable
  • Dummy cell
  • software

Supported Techniques:

Voltammetric techniques:

  • Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV)
  • AC Voltammetry (ACV)
  • Fast Cyclic Voltammetry (FCV)
  • Cyclic Voltammetry (CV)
  • Stripping chronopotentiometry (PSA or SCP)

Pulsed techniques:

  • Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)
  • Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV)
  • Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV)

Amperometric techniques:

  • Chronoamperometry (CA)
  • Zero Resistance Amperometry (ZRA)
  • Chronocoulometry (CC)
  • MultiStep Amperometry (MA)
  • Fast Amperometry (FAM)
  • Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD)
  • Multiple-Pulse Amperometric Detection (MPAD)

Galvanostatic techniques:

  • Linear Sweep Potentiometry (LSP)
  • Chronopotentiometry (CP)
  • MultiStep Potentiometry (MP)
  • Open Circuit Potentiometry (OCP)
  • Stripping Chronopotentiometry (SCP or PSA)

Technique as a function of time:

  • Mixed Mode (MM)

Impedance Spectroscopy / EIS

  • Potential scan or current scan
  • Time scan
  • Fixed potential or fixed current
  • Fixed potential

Measurement Specifications:

PS4 Model PS4.F0.05 / PS4.F1.05 / PS4.F2.05 PS4.F0.10 / PS4.F1.10 / PS4.F2.10
Potential range -5 V to +5 V -10 V to +10 V
Step potential 0.075 mV to 250 mV 0.075 mV to 250 mV
Pulse potential 0.075 mV to 250 mV 0.075 mV to 250 mV
Technique Parameter & Limit
Normal Pulse and Differential Pulse Voltammetry Scan rate = 0.1 mV/s (75 µV step) to 100 mV/s (5 mV step) / Pulse time = 10 ms to 300 ms
Square Wave Voltammetry1 and AC Voltammetry Frequency = 1 Hz to 2000 Hz 1
Linear Sweep and Cyclic Voltammetry Scan rate = 0.01 mV/s (75 µV step) to 500 V/s (10 mV step)
ChronoAmperometry Interval time = 0.25 ms to 300s / Max. run time = 1000000 s (> 10 days at 16 s interval)
Pulsed Amperometric Detection Interval time = 50 ms to 300 s / Pulse time = 1 ms to 1 s / Max. run time = 640000 s (> 7 days at 10 s interval)
Multiple Pulse Amperometric Detection Pulse times = 100 ms to 2 s / Run time = 10 s to 100000 s / E levels = 3
Fast Amperometry Interval time = 0.02 ms to 1 s / Max. run time = 30 s / Max. points = 65000 (4000 for interval time < 0.2 ms)
ChronoPotentiometry and Open Circuit Potentiometry Interval time = 0.25 ms to 300 s / Max. run time = 1000000 s (> 10 days at 300 s interval)
Multistep Amperometry, Multistep Potentiometry and Mixed Mode: Interval time = 0.25 ms to 300 s / Level switching overhead time = ±80 ms / Number of levels = 1 to 255 / Number of cycles = 1 to 20000 / Max. run time = > 1 year

PalmSens can be extended with the bipotentiostat module as well as a multiplexer with 8 or 16 channels. The opto-isolated cable, as well as the Bluetooth option, allows PalmSens to be used floating with respect to ground.

Specifications:

General
Dc-potential range ± 10 V (or ± 5 V) *
Compliance voltage ± 10 V
Maximum current ± 30 mA (typical)
Max. acquisition rate 150,000 data points/s
Potentiostat (controlled potential mode)
Applied dc-potential resolution 76.3 µV
Applied potential accuracy ≤ 0.1% ±1 mV offset
Current ranges 100 pA to 10 mA (9 ranges)
Current accuracy ≤ 0.1 % (at Full Scale Range)
Measured current resolution 0.005 % of current range (5 fA on 100 pA range) 0.0025% of 10 mA range
Galvanostat (controlled current mode)
Current Ranges 1nA to 10 mA (8 ranges)
Applied dc-current range ±6 times current range
Applied dc-current resolution 0.0076% of applied current range (<10 mA) // [ 0.0038% of 10mA range]
Measured dc potential resolution 78.13 uV at ±10V // 7.813 uV at ±1V // 0.7813 uV at ±0.1V
Measured dc potential accuracy ≤ 0.05% or ±1mV (for |E|< ±9V // [ ≤ 0.2% (for |E|≥ ±9V]
FRA / EIS (impedance measurements)
Frequency range 10 μHz to 1 MHz (or 10 μHz to 100 kHz) *
Ac-amplitude range 1 mV to 0.25 V rms, or 0.6 V p-p
GEIS (galvanostatic impedance measurements)
Frequency range 10 μHz to 100 kHz (or 10 μHz to 100 kHz)
Ac-amplitude range 0.001 x CR to 0.4 x CR (<10 mA) 0.001 x CR to 0.2 x CR (10 mA)
Electrometer
Electrometer amplifier input > 1 TΩ // 10 pF
Bandwidth 1 MHz
Auxiliary port (D-Sub 15)
Analog input ±10 V, 18 bit
Analog output 0-10 V, 12 bit (1 kOhm output impedance)
4 digital outputs 0-5 V
1 digital input 0-5 V
I-out and E-out raw output of current and potential, E-out ±10 V (1 kOhm output impedance), i-out ±6 V (1 kOhm output impedance)
Power 5 V output (max. 150 mA)
Instrument
Housing 15.7 x 9.7 x 3.5 cm3
Weight 500 g
Temperature range 0 ºC to + 50 ºC
Power supply USB or internal LiPo battery
Communication USB and Bluetooth
Internal storage space 8 GB per channel or +/- 800000 measurements incl. method info (assuming 200 data points per measurement)
Battery time > 16 hours idle time > 4 hours with cell on at max. current Extendable by means of power bank

Extensions:

There are several extensions for the PalmSens4. The main extensions include:

  • Pt1000 temperature sensor.
  • MUX8 and MUX16 multiplexers.
  • Magnetic stirrer for stripping analysis applications.
  • USB galvanic isolator for floating measurements.
  • Differential Electrometer Amplifier (DEA) for use as a floating voltage amplifier with differential input and single output for measuring an auxiliary signal between -5 to +5V or -10 to +10V.

Software:

PalmSens4 is shipped with the PSTrace 5.0 software.
PSTrace 5.0:

  • Equivalent Circuit Fitting and Simulation for EIS
  • Support for PalmSens4; view and copy data on its internal 4GB storage
  • New technique: Mixed Mode for combining potentiometry and amperometry, potential sweeps and measuring at open circuit
  • Improved UI
  • .pssession” file format introduced for always saving all available measurements, method information and meta data to a single file.